2010 meta-analysis showed calcium supplements (without co-administered vitamin D) are associated with increased risk for heart attack (British Medical Journal 2010)
2008 study found calcium supplements are associated with a greater number of heart attacks in postmenopausal women (British Medical Journal 2008)
2004 study showed that people with excess calcium in their coronary artery and who take statins have a 17-fold higher risk of heart attacks than do those with lower arterial calcium levels; researchers concluded that the two most definitive indicators of heart attack were LDL levels and calcium build-up.
2010 article presented evidence for a total lack of support in the research for calcium supplements reducing fracture risk (Clinical Journal American Society of Nephrology 2010)
2007 study showed that calcium from dietary sources has more favorable effects on bone health than calcium from supplements in postmenopausal women (Amer. Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007)
1997 study showed women with the highest consumption of calcium from dairy products had the highest risk of fractures, and those who took calcium supplements had the highest risk for kidney stones (Nurse’s Health Study, Annals of Internal Med. 1997)
2001 study found men who consumed more than 600mg calcium a day from dairy products showed a 32 percent higher risk of prostate cancer than men consuming less than 150mg per day, and each additional increase of 500mg calcium from dairy was associated with another 16 percent increase in prostate cancer risk (Physicians’ Health Study, Amer. Journ. of Clinical Nutrition 2001)
2009 study found men consuming the most calcium from food were 25 percent less likely to die over the next decade (Amer. Journ. of Epidemiology 2009)